Water Pollution- Summary

Water Pollution


Summary
1. Water pollutants include infectious agents from human or animal wastes; oxygen-demanding wastes from sewage, paper mills, and food processing; inorganic chemicals from surface runoff, industrial effluents, and household cleaners; organic chemicals from oil, plastics, pesticides, and detergents; sediment from erosion; and thermal pollution from power plant cooling.

2. Water pollution problems in streams and lakes relate to chemical and biological pollutants, with the greater problems being cultural eutrophication.

3. Groundwater pollution is caused by leaks from waste ponds and underground storage tanks, chemical dumping or spilling, surface runoff, and fertilizers. It can be prevented by finding substitutes for toxic chemicals, installing monitoring wells near landfills and underground tanks, requiring leak detectors on underground tanks, banning hazardous waste disposal in landfills and injection wells, and storing harmful liquids in aboveground tanks.

4. Water pollution of oceans relates to nitrogen oxide from industry and cars, heavy metals from effluents, toxic sediment, sewage, runoff of pesticides, manure, fertilizers, and red tides from excess nitrogen.

5. Reduction or prevention of water pollution can be achieved through reduction of use of toxic pollutants, banning of ocean dumping of sludge, protection of sensitive areas from oil drilling and oil transport, regulation of coastal development, and regulation of sewage treatment.

6. The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 requires that drinking water contain less than the maximum contaminant levels for any pollutants that may have adverse effects on human health. Restructuring of water treatment systems, enforcing current regulations, banning the use of lead in new structures, and chemical tests and biological indicators can be used to make drinking water safer.

摘要
1。水污染物包括從人體或動物廢物所生之傳染性病原體;來自下水道、造紙廠、食品加工的需氧廢物;來自地表徑流、工業廢水,和家用清潔劑的無機化學品;來自石油,塑膠材料,農藥,洗滌劑的有機化工製品; 源自侵蝕的沉積物;和源自於電廠的冷卻水的熱污染。

2。河流和湖泊的水體污染問題,涉及化學和生物污染物,與更大的問題是源自於文化的優養化。

3。地下水污染是廢物池塘和地下儲存罐的洩漏物,化學製品傾倒或溢出,地表徑流和化肥等所造成。它是可以預防的,這可藉由尋找有毒化學品的替代品,在垃圾填埋區及地下儲存槽附近安裝監測井,要求在地下儲存槽安裝檢漏儀,禁止在填埋場和注水井處置危險廢棄物,及在地上儲存槽收存有害液體。

4。海洋的水質污染與氮氧化物來自工業和汽車,重金屬的廢水,有毒沉積物,污水,農藥徑流,堆肥,化肥和過量的氮所生的赤潮有關。

5。為減少或防止水污染,可通過減少使用有毒污染物,禁止海洋傾倒污泥,保護敏感地區的嚴禁石油開採和石油運輸,管制沿海開發和污水處理監管。

6。美國1974年安全飲用水法規定,飲用水含有任何污染物的含量,應低於對人類健康可能產生不利影響最大污染物之數量(容許量)。重組的水處理系統,執行現行規定,在新的結構禁止使用鉛,化學和生物指標的檢測,可用於製造更安全的飲用水。
Last modified: Sunday, 1 November 2009, 8:40 PM