chap 2 Glossary 水資源詞彙表

Glossary 水資源詞彙表

Aquifers

含水層
underground caverns and porous layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which groundwater flows. 地下溶洞和多孔層砂,礫石,或通過這些基岩地下水流。

dam壩
a structure built across a river to control the river’s water flow. 一種跨河控制河流的水流量的結構建造物。 

desalination海水淡化
involves removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from brackish (slightly salty) water in aquifers or lakes for domestic use. 包括去除水海洋水或含水層或湖泊中鹹淡水(微鹹水)溶解鹽以供國內使用。

drought

乾旱
a prolonged period in which occasional precipitation is at least 70% lower and evaporation is higher than normal in an area that is normally not dry. 長期乾旱時期,偶爾降水量為至少低某個區域正常量的70%,或蒸發量高於正常量,該正常量通常不會呈現乾枯狀。

floodplain

洪水平原

(漫灘)
A flood happens when water in a stream overflows its normal channel and spills into the adjacent area, called a floodplain.

當洪水發生時,在正常渠道的水流溢出,滲透到鄰近地區,叫做漫灘。

groundwater地下水
Some precipitation infiltrates the ground and percolates downward through spaces in soil, gravel, and rock until an impenetrable layer of rock stops it. The water in these spaces is called groundwater—one of our most important sources of freshwater and a key component of the earth’s natural capital. 一些降水滲入地面,並經由土壤,沙礫和岩石而向下浸透,直到一個堅不可摧的岩石層方始停止。在這些空間的水被稱為地下水,是我們最重要的淡水來源,也是地球的自然資本的一個關鍵組成部分。

reliable surface runoff

可靠的地表徑流
the amount of surface runoff that we can generally count on as a source of freshwater from year to year.

地表徑流之數額,我們一般可以指望作為每年的淡水來源。

reservoir 蓄水庫或儲水池
After a river is dammed, the river’s flow creates an artificial lake, or reservoir, behind the dam.

河水經水庫截流後,河水的水流量創建一個人工湖,或水庫,這是存放在大壩後面。

surface runoff

地表徑流
Precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation is called surface runoff.

不滲透到地面的降水,或重返大氣層中的蒸發,稱為地表徑流。

surface water

地表水
the freshwater from precipitation and snowmelt that flows across the earth’s land surface and into rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and ultimately to the oceans.

由降水和溶雪而得之淡水,這是流經地球陸地表面和流入江河,溪流,湖泊,濕地,河口,並最終流入海洋。

water table地下水面 (水位)
The top of this groundwater zone地下水區的最高處

watershed or drainage basin 流域或排水凹地
The land from which surface water drains into a particular river, lake, wetland, or other body of water.

地表水排水到特定的河流,湖泊,濕地,或其他水體的土地(陸地)。

zone of saturation 飽和層,

亦稱含水層


The spaces in soil and rock close to the earth’s surface hold little moisture. Below a certain depth, in the zone of saturation, these spaces are completely filled with water. 接近地球表面的土壤和岩石含有較少的水分。低於一定的深度,在飽和區,這些空間完全裝滿了水。
最後修改: 2009年 10月 18日(Sun) 12:59