GLOSSARY---Food resources and farmland development

Glossary --
Chapter 3 

1.animal manure 
the dung and urine of cattle, horses, poultry, and other farm animals. It improves soil structure, adds organic nitrogen, and stimulates beneficial soil bacteria and fungi. 

2.aquaculture 
raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages 

3.chronic malnutrition 
deficiencies of protein and other key nutrients—which weakens them, makes them more susceptible to disease, and hinders the normal physical and mental development of children. 

4.chronic undernutrition, or hunger 
People who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer from chronic undernutrition, or hunger. 

5.commercial inorganic fertilizer
The best way to maintain soil fertility is through soil conservation. The next best option is to restore some of the plant nutrients that have been washed, blown, or leached out of the soil, or that have been removed by repeated crop harvesting. To do this, farmers can use commercial inorganic fertilizer produced from various minerals. 

6.compost 
produced when microorganisms in soil break down organic matter such as leaves, crop residues, food wastes, paper, and wood in the presence of oxygen. 

7.desertification
It occurs when the productive potential of soil, especially on arid or semiarid land, falls by 10% or more because of a combination of prolonged drought and human activities that reduce or degrade topsoil. 

8.famine 
occurs when there is a severe shortage of food in an area accompanied by mass starvation, many deaths, economic chaos, and social disruption. 

9.fishery
a concentration of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water. 

10.food insecurity
living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition, which threatens their ability to lead healthy and productive lives. 

11.food security
means that every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life.

12.green manure
consists of freshly cut or growing green vegetation that is plowed into the topsoil to increase the organic matter and humus available to the next crop.
 
13.green revolution
Since 1950, about 88% of the increase in global food production has come from using high-input industrialized agriculture to increase yields in a process called the green revolution. 

14.industrialized agriculture, or high-input agriculture 
uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops, or monocultures.

15.integrated pest management (IPM) 
Many pest control experts and farmers believe the best way to control crop pests is a carefully designed integrated pest management (IPM) program. In this more sustainable approach, each crop and its pests are evaluated as parts of an ecological system. Then farmers develop a control program that uses a combination of cultivation, biological controls, and chemical tools and techniques, applied in a carefully coordinated way. 

16.organic agriculture
crops that are grown with little or no use of synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, or genetically engineered seeds.
 
17.organic fertilizer
The best way to maintain soil fertility is through soil conservation. The next best option is to restore some of the plant nutrients that have been washed, blown, or leached out of the soil, or that have been removed by repeated crop harvesting. To do this, farmers can use organic fertilizer made from plant and animal wastes. 

18.overnutrition
occurs when food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat. Too many calories, too little exercise, or both can cause overnutrition. 

19.pest 
any species that interferes with human welfare by competing with us for food, invading lawns and gardens, destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading ecosystems, or simply being a nuisance.

20.pesticides 
chemicals used to kill or control populations of organisms that humans consider undesirable. 

21.plantation agriculture
is a form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical developing countries.

22.polyculture 
Some traditional farmers focus on cultivating a single crop, but many grow several crops on the same plot simultaneously, a practice known as polyculture. 

23.salinization 
Repeated annual applications of irrigation water in dry climates lead to the gradual accumulation of salts in the upper soil layers—a soil degradation process called salinization. 

24.slash-and-burn agriculture
This type of subsistence agriculture involves burning and clearing small plots in tropical forests, growing a variety of crops for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients, and then shifting to other plots.
 
25.soil conservation 
involves using a variety of ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility, mostly by keeping the soil covered with vegetation.

26.soil erosion 
the movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil, from one place to another by the actions of wind and water. 

27.traditional intensive agriculture
farmers increase their inputs of human and draft-animal labor, fertilizer, and water to obtain higher crop yields. 

28.traditional subsistence agriculture
uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough crops for a farm family’s survival, with little left over to sell or store as a reserve in hard times. 

29.waterlogging
Another problem with irrigation is waterlogging, in which water accumulates underground and gradually raises the water table.
Last modified: Saturday, 21 November 2009, 11:00 PM